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Chapter 3 - Educational Movements

B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes


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Old 03-24-2010, 08:15 AM   #1 (permalink)
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Default Chapter 3 - Educational Movements


Chapter 3 - Educational Movements

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* Contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education

* Aligarh Movement

* Sind Madressah-tul-Islam


Q.1. Describe the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education.
Sir Syed's (1817-98) Contribution towards Muslim Education

Perhaps the Muslims of the Sub-Continent owe their greatest gratitude to Syed Ahmed Khan. He flourished in the second half of the 19th century. His talent, deep-insight, love for Islam and hard work played a major role in the revival of Muslims in India. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 to a Syed family in Delhi. He started his career as a humble judicial official in the English East India Company. Later on he served on important jobs. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan alone among his contemporiies realized that the plight of Muslims could not be improved without a revolution in their attitude towards education. The Muslims were inimical to western education for three reason.
1. They considered it inferior to traditional Islamic learning.
2. It was being forced upon them by a foreign people, and
3. They thought that an education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their beliefs.
During the war of Independence he saved the lives of many Englishmen. The Government centered the title of Sir on him. Thus, he won the confidence of the British Government. After the war of Independence the Muslims were passing through a critical phase. By refusing to acquire western education they were not keeping pace with modern times. The Muslims hated English language and culture. They kept their children away from the schools and colleges. But in this manner they were unconsciously damaging the interests of the Muslim Community. Their ignorance of the English language and lack of modem education kept them away from respectable government posts. On the other hand the Hindus acquired modem knowledge and dominated the government jobs. Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader to realize the gravity of the situation. He was greatly pained to see the miserable condition of the Muslims everywhere. He decided to devote his full efforts for the welfare of the Muslims. The first need was the removal of mistrust about the Muslims from the minds of British rulers. For this purpose he wrote - Essay on the causes of Indian Revolt in which he proved that there were many factors which led to the uprising of 1857 and that only the Muslims were not to be held responsible for it. In addition he wrote "Loyal Muhammadans of India" in which too he defended the Muslims against the charges of disloyalty. These works restored confidence of the British in the Muslims to a large extent. The Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his co-religionists. He told the Muslims that without acquiring modern education they could not compete with the Hindus. He pleaded that there was no harm in adopting western sciences and in learning English language. He issued a magazine named "Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq" which projected adoptable European manners. Salient features of the political, educational and religious contributions of Syed Ahmed Khan are as given below

1. In 1863 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established a Scientific Society. The purpose of this society was translation of English books into Urdu language.
2. During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called "Aligarh Institute Gazette".
3. In 1869 Syed Ahmed Khan visited England. There he studied the system of Education. Moreover he wrote Khutbat-e-Ahmedya in reply to Sir William Muir's book "Life of Muhammad".
4. In 1870 he issued his famous magazine named "Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq" in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. This magazine promoted Urdu language immensely.

Shortly afterwards Syed Ahmed Khan wrote a commentary on the Holy Quran. In this work Syed Ahmed Khan interpreted Islam on logical and scientific basis. Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers of the Two Nation Theory. He openly declared that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. He advised the Muslims to refrain from Joining Indian National Congress. In May 1875, Syed Ahmed Khan founded Muhammadan Anglo Oriental High School at Aligarh. Two years later in 1877 this school was elevated to the status of a college by Lord Lytton the British Viceroy himself. M.A.O College Aligarh was a residential institution. It rendered great services in imparting modern education to the Muslims. It boasted of the services of many renowned scholars of that period like professor T.W. Arnold in Philosophy, Sir Walter Raleigh in English, Maulana Shibli in Persian and Jadu Nath Chakarwati in Mathematics. In 1921 M.A.O College was raised to teh status of Aligarh University. This seat of teaming played a significant part in infusing spirit of Islamic nationalism among the Muslim students. These students later on became the torch bearers of the freedom movement in Indo-Pakistan. With the view of promoting the educational cause of 70 million Indian Muslims, Sir Syed founded, in 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference which held its meeting at various places to provide a forum for discussing problems that affected the Muslims at large. The principal aims of the Conference were

1. To make an effort to spread among the Muslims western education to the higher standard.'
2. To enquire into the state of religious education in English schools founded and endowed by the Muslims, and to find out means to conduct it in the best possible way.
3. To give some strengthened support to the instruction voluntarily imparted by Muslim divines in religious and other oriental learning's and adopt some measures to maintain it as a living concern.
4. To examine a state of education and instruction in the indigenous primary schools and take steps to remove their present state of decay in directing them onto the path of progress. Muhammadan Educational Conference used to hold its annual meetings in various cities where by the cooperation of local Muslims steps were taken for the progress of Education.

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Old 03-24-2010, 08:16 AM   #2 (permalink)
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Default Re: Chapter 3 - Educational Movements

Q.2. What do you mean by Aligarh Movement? Describe its educational role.
Aligarh Movement

The Aligarh Movement was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the greatest Muslim educationist of the 19th century. After the war of Independence of 1857 the British did not trust the Muslims. As a result they adopted a policy of oppression and repression towards the Muslims. They arrested and punished leading Muslims irrespective of the fact whether they were involved in the events of 1857 or not. As a result many innocent Muslims became victim of British highhandedness. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan has observed these atrocities in these words
There was no calamity in these days which was not attributed to the Muslims and there is no doubt that any calamity which fell from the firmament might not have come straight to some Muhammadan houses bringing ruin and destruction.

The sufferings of the Muslims multiplied when they refused to adopt the system of education introduced by the British. The Muslims refused to send their children to the European and Government schools because they hated English language. The result was that the Muslims could not acquire modern education and were kept away from reasonable government jobs. The British Government excluded the Muslims from the civil and military honors with the stigma of disdainful unfitness.
According to Dr. Hunter there was scarcely a Government office in Calcutta in which a Muhammadan could hope for any post above the rank of a porter, messenger, and filler of ink-pots and mender of posts. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who diagnosed the causes of gradual decline of the status of Muslim Community. He decided to take necessary steps to better the lot of Muslims in the educational, political and economic spheres. His works for the educational development for Muslims are as follows.

1. Farsi Maddarsa Muradabad
He establised a Farsi Maddarsa at Muradabad in 1859. It was the starting point of Sir Syed's Educational struggle. In this Maddarsa, English is also taught besides English.

2. Victoria School Ghazipur
Sir Syed establised first modern Victoria School at Ghazipur (1864). In this school, besides Modern Education five languages (English, Urdu, Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit) were also taught.

3. Establishment of Scientific Society
A more ambitious undertaking was the foundation of the Scientific Society in 1863 at Ghazipur, which published translations of many educational texts and issued a bilingual journal - in Urdu and English. The basic purpose of this society was translation of English, Persian and Arabic writings into Urdu language.

4. Aligarh Institute Gazette
During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called Aligarh Institute Gazette. The imparted information on history; ancient and modern science of agriculture, natural and physical sciences and advanced mathematics.

5. Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq
On 24th December 1876 he issued his famous magazine named Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq from Benares in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. This journal contained articles from influential Muslims who agreed with Sir Syed that there was a need for a new approach to education. This magazine also promoted Urdu language immensely. Although some ulema attacked the journal, it played a major part in bringing about an intellectual revolution amongst Muslim thinkers.

6. Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College, Aligarh
For the educational and social uplift of the Muslims Sir Syed Ahmed Khan decided to open Muslim educational institutions. Earlier after his return from England he had established a Madrassah in May 1875. In January 1877 M.A.O College was inaugrated at Aligarh by Lord Lytton the Viceroy of India. The college soon showed tremendous progress. It became the Centre of Muslim educational and intellectual activity in the Sub Continent. It was a residential institution. Many important Muslim figures like Maulana Shibli, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar etc at one time or another remained associated with this college.

7. Aligarh Muslim University
The M.A.O College Aligarh was rendering great service in imparting education to the Muslims of India. The Muslims now wanted to get it elevated to the status of a Muslim University. In 1911 on the eve of the visit of King George - V to India his Highness Sir Agha Khan made an appeal for funds needed to set up Aligarh University. The Muslims responded generously and as a result a large collection was made. A draft constitution was drawn up and a consultative committee was formed. Unfortunately the draft was not approved by the secretary of state. The Government was reluctant to grant the right of affiliating colleges outside Aligarh to the proposed Aligarh University. But the Muslims were not willing to accept a University with limited jurisdiction. However on 15th October 1915 Muslim University Association approved the Muslim University as contemplated by the Government akin to other Hindu Universities. Thus the bill for the Muslim University was introduced in the Indian Legislative Council and was passed in September 1920. Thus Aligarh University Act came into force on 1st December 1920. In this way the Muslims of India came to have their own University after a long struggle. The Aligarh University inculcated a vigorous spirit of nationalism in the Muslim students. It produced thousands of graduates which carried the spirit of nationalism to every nook and comer of the Sub Continent. In 1925 sixty six percent of all the Muslim students admitted to the Indian University were given admission in Aligarh University only. The graduates of Aligarh University were respected in all quarters. All the Aligarh students later on became the standard bearers on Pakistan Movement. Some of them like Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali become dynamic leaders of the Muslims. Thus Pakistan, owes its establishment to the Aligarh Movement, to a great extent

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Old 03-24-2010, 08:16 AM   #3 (permalink)
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Default Re: Chapter 3 - Educational Movements

Q.3. What do you know about Sind Madressah-tul-Islam?
Sind Madressah-tul-Islam, Karachi (1885)

The Sind Madressah-tul-Islam, an Alma Mater of the Father of the Nation and dozens of other national leaders, who played prominent roles in the creation of Pakistan, is located of Shahrah-e-Liaquat and was the first Muslim educational complex built in Sind.
The Madressah (school) was initiated on 1st Sept. 1885 in a rented two storied building near Bolton Market by K.M. Hasan Ali Effendi. Upon completion of this building on 14th November, 1890, the Madressah moved to the current premises and has functioned uninterruptedly since then. The current site itself was previously a Municipal camel camping ground (carvansarai) which has bestowed by the Karachi Municipality to the Madressah Board. The building was designed by James Strachen according to the sketches of K.B. Wali Mohammad and its foundation stone was laid by Lord Duffering on 14th Nov. 1887. The total cost of construction of the main Madressah building came to Rs. 1,97,188.
The Sind Madressah-tul-Islam was founded for educational advancement of the Muslims of Sind on the new and modern lines. For this purpose Hasan Ali Affindi himself visited Aligarh to benefit from the experience of Sir Syed and his co-workers, Sind Madressah provided good education at low cost. The students from nearly all sections of the society and from areas far and wide joined the institution which later made an impact on national life. Maulvi Umeruddin Sahib was the first Principal of the Sind Madressah. This was a residential institution. This is the proud institution where the founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam received his early education. Doctor Daud Pota, Sir Ghalam Hussain Hidayatullah, Sheikh Abdul Majeed Sindhi, Hasan Ali Abdul Rehman, Tufail Ali A. Rehman and A.K. Baruhi are other popular students.
In 1938 Sind Madressah became free from Government control. On 21st June 1943, the administrative board of Madressah made it Sind Muslim College (S.M College) which is inaugrated by Quaid-e-Azam. He said
I am happy that my educational institution has now extended to college.
In 1947, it was the only Degree College for Muslims in Karachi to meet the growing needs of the students influx from India. In 1953 and 1957, faculty of Commerce and faculty of Science were built respectively. It has now expanded into several independent institutions to meet the rising needs of the time. S.M. Law College, S.M. Fatima Jinnah Girls School, and S.M. Liyari High School are also independent institutions of this Madressah which are playing their vital role in progression of educational and cultural activities.

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