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Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement

B-com part 1 Pakistan Studies Notes


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Default Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement


Pakistan Studies - Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement

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* Demands of Muslims for separate homeland

* What services to the nation were rendered by Allama Iqbal.

* Important political events from 1940 to 1947.

* Role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan.


________________________________________________


Chapter 1 - Demands of Muslims for separate homeland


Q.1. Why did the Muslims of Indo-Pak subcontinent demand a separate homeland for themselves?
Introduction

Hindus and Muslims had lived peacefully together in India for centuries, but after the British invasion in South Asia and their undue support to Hindus, life became very difficult for Indian Muslims. In fact, the Muslims were a separate nation who always adhered to their religious identity. The British and the Hindus in spite of their great efforts could not put a wedge into the Muslim unity and their love for the national character. The creation of Pakistan owes much to this feeling of adherence to their national image and religious identity.


The Muslims of Indo Pak Sub Continent demanded a separate homeland on the following grounds.


1. Desire to establish an Islamic State

Islam is a complete code of life for the Muslims and they are eager to implement it in their personal and collective life. Islamic code of Life or Islamic Ideology cannot be implemented until a pure Islamic Society free from all other unIslamic influences is established. The desire to establish an Islamic State was also one of the factors to demand a separate homeland.


2. Two Nation Theory

The Two Nation Theory played an important role for demanding a separate homeland according to which Hindus and Muslims are the two nations and therefore they cannot live together. Quaid-e-Azam once said,

Hindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.

So the Muslims should have a separate State where they could lead their individual and collective life in accordance with the Islamic principles.


3. Historical Collusion

Hindu and Muslim historical collusion started when Muhammad Bin Qasim, defeating Raja Dahir, founded Islamic government in the subcontinent. Many battles were fought between Hindus and Muslims under Muslim Rule. The historical collusion continued also during the British Regime. Hindus, cooperating with British, tried to diminish Muslim culture and their way of life but they remained futile. The future of Muslims was obvious in such condition; therefore they decided to demand for the separate homeland.


4. Hindus and British

Since the British snatched power from Muslims, they were doubtful about the faithfulness of Muslims. So, Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the Muslims morally, socially, economically and politically. They reserved all higher civil, judicial and military appointments for British only while Muslims were debarred from all official positions. The Islamic educational system was replaced by British one. Then Muslims were forced to change their religion to Christianity and were compelled to send their children to co educational institutes and abandon purdha. This was the reason that Muslims became fed up with both British and Hindus and decided to have a separate homeland.


5. British Parliamentary System

Indian National Congress demanded the British Parliamentary system of government in India which meant majority rule. The implementation of this simply meant the Hindus slavery of Muslims since they were in majority. This was the reason that Muslims stressed on separate electorates and got it accepted. Separate electorate was the first brick in the foundation of demand for separate homeland.


6. Shuddi and Sangathan Movement

Hindu Muslim Unity evaporated in the year after the Khilafat Movement and Hindu Muslim Riots began. The poison of differences between the two nations aggravated with the passage of time. The differences reached to the peak when Shuddhi and Sangathan movements began. The Shuddhi Movement aimed at the mass conversion of certain backward groups of Muslims into Hindus by force whereas the Sangathan Programme sought to organize the Hindus into a Militant force to flight with the Muslims.


7. Activities of Maha Sabha

Maha Sabha was established in 1900. It was a non political party until the Shuddhi and Sangathan Movement started. These movements motivated Maha Sabha to be involved in politics. It proved to be the worst enemy of Muslims. The party declared Muslims as outsiders and said that Muslims have no relation with India. If they want to leave it then they could leave it happily but if they want to leave it then they could leave it happily but if they want to live in India, they will have to accept Hindu Mut. So it was impossible for Hindus and Muslims to live in a country together.


8. Protection of Urdu Language

Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims in the subcontinent. In 1867, the Hindu-Urdu controversy began with some outstanding Hindus of Banaras demanding replacements of Urdu by Hindi as the court language. The supporters of Hindi claimed for it a national status whereas the Muslims hotly denied it. As the controversy spread, the two languages became more and more exclusive. Muslims got very disappointed when in April 1900 UP Governor Sir Antony Mac Donnell gave Hindi the status of National language with Urdu. That's why Muslims felt the need to set a political party. Then after a detailed discussion at last All India Muslim League was established in 1906. Maulvi Abdul Haque (1870-1961) has rightly said, Urdu Language placed the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan. It is a reality that it was one of the major reasons for demanding a separate country.


9. Protection of Muslim Culture

Hindus, with the consent of British during the Congress Ministries, burnt and looted the properties and houses of Muslims, Moreover, the signs of Muslims, past glory were damaged. Educational Syllabus was changed. Urdu was replaced by Hindi and the Muslim students were forced to worship statues of Gandhi in their schools. The Muslims of India, therefore, decided that the Muslim culture could be protected in a free and separate Muslim State.


10. Narrow mindedness of Hindus

Hindu is a narrow-minded nation who does not believe the philosophy of equality. They considers themselves superior and used to call Muslims 'Maleech' (impure). There was no concept of eating and drinding together. Furthermore Muslims were not allowed to touch the food items of Hindus. There was only way out for the Muslims to demand a separate homeland.


11. Economic Hardships

During the period of British Government, Hindus practically threw out Muslims from the fields of trade and industry. All the business, industrial, and services opportunities were occupied by Hindus and some degraded jobs were left for the Muslims. Muslims of India became the political slave of British and economic slave of Hindus. To come out from this vicious circle, at last, Muslims decided to demand for a separate homeland.


12. Congress Ministries

During the period of Congress Ministries (1937-1939). Hindus did worst possible injustice with Muslims. The Hindu-Muslim riots were usual during the Congress rule. Band-e-Mataram, three coloured flag and statue of Gandhi were introduced at national level. Urdu was replaced by Hindi and slaughtering cow was banned. Muslim leaders showed their resentment before Gandhi and Jawahar lal Nehru. Gandhi showed his helpless while Nehru plainly and openly said that there were only two nations in India, Congress and British and the rest should follow them. After this statement, nothing for left for Muslims but to present Pakistan Resolution in 1940.


Conclusion

On the basis of above mentioned factors and bitter attitude of British and Congress the Muslims apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. Therefore they quitted Congress and demanded separate land on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus. According to Quaid-e-Azam

The Muslims demanded Pakistan were they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamic law.


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Default Re: Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement

Chapter 1 - What services to the nation were rendered by Allama Iqbal.
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Prelude

Allama Muhammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. After seeking early education, he was admitted to the Government College Lahore, where he obtained the degree of MA in the subject of philosophy. He left for England for higher studies in 1905. He obtained the degree of philosophy of ethics in 1907; he obtained the degree of doctorate (Ph.D.) from Munich University.


Services of Iqbal in Pakistan Movement

Iqbal and Pakistan Movement

Although his main interests were scholarly, Iqbal was not unconcerned with the political situation of the country and the political fortunes of the Muslim community of India. Already in 1908, while in England, he had been chosen as a member of the executive council of the newly-established British branch of the Indian Muslim League. In 1931 and 1932 he represented the Muslims of India in Round Table Conference held in England to discuss the issue of the political future of India. And in a 1930 lecture Iqbal suggested the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. Iqbal died (1938) before the creation of Pakistan (1947), but it was his teaching that spiritually ... has been the chief force behind the creation of Pakistan.


Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood

Allama Iqbal is the greatest philosopher and poet of the present era. Along with this, he possessed the view about political affairs. He awakened the feeling of Muslim nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about the Muslim nationhood.

When the Hindu philosophers presented this philosophy that a nation is born throughout the country and when Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni seconded it, then Iqbal reacted strongly towards it. His thinking and poetry reflect the Two Nation Theory and his poetry awakened the feeling of Islamic Nationality among the Muslims of India. This feeling was a milestone in the created of Pakistan.


Iqbal's Political Life

Allama Iqbal made his debut in politics then he was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. During the elections of 1937, when Quaid-e-Azam started re contructioning of the Muslim League, Allama Iqbal was along with him. He always supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League. He always respected Quaid-e-Azam's point of view.


Iqbal and Two Nation Theory

Allama Iqbal firmly believe that the Muslims of India have a separate identity and to protect his identity, the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India was necessary. On 28th March, 1909, he excusing the invitation from the secular party "Minsva Lodge" said

I have been a keen supporter of this theory that religious differences in the country should end and even now I practise the principle. But, now I think that separate national identity for the Muslims and the Hindus is necessary for their survival.

At his Presidential address in 1930, on the occasion of the annual session of Muslim League at Allahbad, Iqbal said

India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. There behaviour is not at all determined by a common race conciousness. I therefore, demand the formation of consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of India and Islam

Pakistan's Sketch

Allama Iqbal's Presidential Address at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. In his address, he in clear words said

I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan be amalgamated into a single state.

He further stated that

The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appeares to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.

Thus, Iqbal demanded a sovereign independent Muslim state even before the Muslim League demanded it in Pakistan's Resolution.


Round Table Conference

During 1930-1932 three sessions of Round Table Conference were held. Iqbal attended Second and Third Round Table Conference. Having attended the Second Round Table Conference in September, 1931 in London, he was keenly aware of the deep-seated Hindu and Sikh prejudice and unaccommodating attitude. He had observed the mind of the British Government. Hence he reiterated his apprehensions and suggested safeguards in respect of the Indian Muslims

In so far then as the fundamentals of our policy are concerned, I have got nothing fresh to offer. Regarding these I have already expressed my views in my address to the All India Muslim League. In the present address I propose, among other things, to help you, in the first place, in arriving at a correct view of the situation as it emerged from a rather hesitating behavior of our delegation the final stages of the Round Table Conference. In the second place, I shall try, according to my lights to show how far it is desirable to construct a fresh policy now that the Premier's announcement at teh last London Conference has again necessitated a careful survey of the whole situation.

I mus be kep in mind that since Maulana Muhammad Ali had died in January 1931 and Quaid-e-Azam had stayed behind in London, the responsibility of providing a proper lead to the India Muslim had fallen on him alone. He had to assume the role of a jealous guardian of his nation till Quaid-e-Azam returned to the sub-continent in 1935.

During the Third Round Table Conference, Iqbal was invited by the London National League where he addressed and audience which included among others, foreign diplomas, members of the House of Commons, Members of the House of Lords and Muslim members of R.T.C delegation. In that gathering he dilated upon the situation of the Indian Muslims. He explained why he wanted the communal settlement first and then the constitutional reforms. He stressed the need for provincial autonomy because autonomy gave the Muslim majority provinces some power to safeguard their rights, cultural traditions and religion. Under the central Government the Muslims were bound to lose their cultural and religious entity at the hands of the overwhelming Hindu majority. referred to what he had said at Allahabad in 1930 and reiterated his belief that before long people were bound to come round to his viewpoint base on cegent reason.


Iqbal's letter to Quaid-e-Azam

The seed sown, the idea to began to evolve and take root. It soon assumed the shape of Muslim state or states in the western and eastern Muslim majority zones as is obvious from the following lines of Iqbal's letter, of June 21, 1937, to the Quaid-e-Azam, only ten months before the former's death

A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal should be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are.


Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal

Iqbal was strictly against nationalism. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of One Umma. For him, a Muslim whether he belonged to any part of the world was the part of brotherly relation. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Umma.

Thus, opposing the limitation and disadvantages of nationalism, Iqbal gave the philosophy of a "Millat-e-Islamia" and this philosophy is the basis of Pakistan ideology.


Conclusion

In short, personality of Allama Iqbal has left indelible marks in history. He tried to awaken the Muslims of India through his philosophy, poetry and politics and he brought the ideas of independence among the Muslims of India. Iqbal died on 21st April, 1938. He was buried in front of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzori Bagh".

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Default Re: Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement

Chapter 1 - Important political events from 1940 to 1947.

Introduction

The era from 1940 to 1947 is the era of rapid changes. Many important events in the history of the Sub Continent took place. The demand of Pakistan is the most prominent among them. In the past, the demand of Pakistan was not raised clearly. It was due to Muslim achievements in this period that now we are living in a sovereign and independent state. The political events from Pakistan Resolution to the establishment of Pakistan are summarized under


1. Pakistan Resolution (March 1940)

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March 23rd, at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq. Quaid-e-Azam said in the ever eloquent words

We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calender, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation.


2. August 1940's Offer

It was proposed to enlarged governor general councils to include members from political parties. War Advisory Committee was also launched. Both League and Congress rejected the offer.


3. Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1942)

28th session of League was held at Madras in which a resolution was adopted on Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Congress.


4. Cripps Mission (March 1942)

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India in March 1942, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitutions. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank. Jinnah, in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League, analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that if these were accepted. Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well.


5. Quit India (August 1942)

The failure of the Cripps Mission, though unfortunate in many ways, resulted in strengthening of the Muslim League case for Pakistan. The Congress decided to launch its final assault on British imperialism in the movement that came to be known as the "Quit India" movement. It was "open rebellion" due to which many people were killed League raised a slogon of Divide and Quit India.


6. Action Committee (December 1943)

It was formed to prepare and organize Muslims of India for coming struggle for achievements of Pakistan.


7. Gandhi Jinnah Talks (September 1944)

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation. Though the Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations failed to achieve the avowed goal of the Hindu-Muslim unity, they brought to Jinnah and the Muslim League two important political gains. Firstly, the leadership of the Congress had now offered to discuss the question of Pakistan seriously before that, the Congress and Mahatama had kept the door to that subject uncompromisingly shut. Secondly, the Congress could no longer justifiably claim that it stood for all the communities in India including the Muslims. Louis Feisher wrote

The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.


8. Wavell's Plan (June 1945)

Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, announced his plan on 14th June 1945 to end the political ruin. As per the provisions of the Wavell Plan, the Executive Council would be reorganized and Hindus and Muslims would equally represent in the Viceroy's Executive Council and the Council would work as Interim Government till the end of war.

9. Simla Conference (June 1945)

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla in June 1945 to give a practical shape to this plan. The Quaid-e-Azam insisted that the right to appoint five Muslim Members in the Executive Council should entirely rest with the Muslim League. This was not acceptable to the Congress as the Congress claimed to represent both the Hindus and Muslims. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it cystal clear that only the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.


10. General Elections (December 1945)

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946. Muslim League managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims in central legislative and 427 seats out of 495 Muslim seats in the provincial legislative. Elections results were enough to prove that Muslim League, under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam, was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion

I have no doubt now in the acheivement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.


11. Delhi Convention (1946)

On 19th April 1946, soon after the elections, Jinnah called a convention at Delhi of all the newly elected League members in the central and provincial legistatures. In this convention the word "States" of 1940's Lahore Resolution is transformed into the word "State" and the legislators signed pledges solemnly declaring their firm conviction that the safety, security, salvation and destiny of the Muslims lay only in the achievement of Pakistan.


12. Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

The most delicate as well as the most tortuous negotiations began with the arrival, in March 1946, of a three member British Cabinet Mission. The crucial task with which the Cabinet Mission was entrusted was that of devising in consultation with the various political parties, constitution making machinery, and of setting up a popular interim government. But, because the Congress-League gulf could not be bridged, despite the Mission's prolonged efforts, the Mission had to make its own proposals in May 1946.

The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6, 1946. The Congress accepted the plan on June 25, 1946, though it rejected the interim setup. The Viceroy should now have invited the Muslim League to form Government as it had accepted the interim setup; but he did not do so because he did not want to make Congress angry. So in this situation Cabinet Mission went back to England on June 29 without deciding anything.


13. Direct Action Day (16th August, 1946)

The Council of the All India Muslim League met in Bombay and on July 27, 1946 it finally sealed its rejection of the Cabinet Mission Plan, and decided to launch its famous "Direct Action" for the achievement of Pakistan, which it could not achieve by peaceful means due to the intransigence of Congress on the one hand and the breach of faith with the Muslim by the British Government on the other. Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India, except in Calcutta, where riots broke out.


14. Interim Government (1946)

On 2nd September 1946 a Congress-dominated Interim Government headed by Nehru was established. The Muslim League refused to accept the proposal in the beginning and did not nominate its members on 5 reserved seats. Muslim League, afterwards, thought that Congress, being in power could harm the Muslim interests so it joined the Cabinet after two months on 26th October 1946. However, the basic attention of both the parties was to save their interests in the interim government.


15. London Conference (December 1946)

The British Government convened a conference of Hindu leader in December 1946 in London to resolve the constitutional problems. Prime Minister Attlee, Lord Wavell, Nehru, Quaid-e-Azam, Liaquat Ali Khan and Sardar Baldev Singh participated in this conference. This Conference also could not end political deadlock.


16. Poor man's Budget (February 1947)

Congress Allocated the Finance Ministry to the League. This is effect placed the whole governmental setup under the Muslim League. On 28th February Liaquat Ali Khan as a minister of Finance presented a budget for 1947-48 which was called a poor man's budget as it adversely affected the Hindu capitalists. The deadlock between the Congress and the League further worsened in this setup.


17. Attlee's Statement (1947)

On 5th February 1947, harried by Muslim League's tactics, nine members of the Interim Government wrote to the Viceroy demanding that League members resign. The League's demand for the dissolution of the constituent assembly had proved to be the last straw. The developing crisis was temporarily defused by the statement made by Attlee in Parliament on 20th February, 1947. The date for British withdrawal from India was fixed as 30th June 1948 and the appointment of a new Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten (1900-1979), was announced.


18. 3rd June 1947 Plan

By the close of 1946, the communal riots had flared up to muderous heights, engulfing almost the entire subcontinent. The two people it seemed, were engaged in a fight to the finish. The time for a peaceful transfer of power was fast running out. Realizing the gravity of the situation, His Majesty's Government sent down to India a new Viceroy - Lord Mountbatten. His protracted negotiations with the various political leaders resulted in 3 June (1947) Plan by which the British decided to partition the subcontinent, and hand over power to two successor States on 15 August, 1947. The plan was duly accepted by the three Indian parties to the dispute the Congress, the League and the Alkali Dal (representing the Sikhs).


19. Indian Independence Act (July 1947)

In July, the British parliament passed the Indian Independence act which was enforced promptly. The Muslims of the Sub Continent finally succeeded in carrying out an independent Islamic State for Muslims.


20. Transfer of Power (14th August 1947)

The transfer of power ceremony was held in Karachi and finally Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947. Consequently, Quaid-e-Azam was sworn in as Governor General of Pakistan and Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister of Pakistan on 15th August. That was the culmination of a long struggle which the Muslims of the South Asian Sub Continent has wedged for a separate homeland in the name of Islam

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Default Re: Chapter 1 - The Pakistan Movement

Chapter 1 - Role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan.


Q.4. Access the role of Quaid-e-Azam in the achievement of Pakistan.

* 1 Introduction
* 2 Beginning of Political Career
* 3 Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910)
* 4 Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity
* 5 Jinnah's Differences with the Congress
* 6 Delhi Proposals (1927)
* 7 Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929)
* 8 Reorganizatoin of Muslim League
* 9 Lacknow Session 1937
* 10 Day of Deliverance (22nd December, 1939)
* 11 Demand for Pakistan (23rd March, 1940)
* 12 Cripps Scheme (1942)
* 13 Divide and Quit (1942)
* 14 Jinnah - Gandhi Talks (1944)
* 15 Simla Conference (1945)
* 16 General Elections (1945-46)
* 17 Delhi Convention (1946)
* 18 Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
* 19 Direct Action Day (16th August, 1946)
* 20 Partition Day (1947)
* 21 Leader of a Free Nation
* 22 Death of the Great Leader

Introduction

The services and dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement need no introduction. In this movement, the personality of Quaid-e-Azam and his immense struggle made the tough pall of the foundation of Pakistan easy and finally, the Muslims of India were successful in reading their destination for which they underwent a long journey under the Quaid.


Beginning of Political Career

If Jinnah's stay in London was the sowing time, the first decade in Bombay, after return from England, was the germination session, the next decade (1906-1916) marked the vintage stage; it could also be called a period of idealism, as Jinnah was a romanticist both in personal and political life. Jinnah came out of his shell, political limelight shone on him; he was budding as a lawyer and flowering as a political personality. A political child during the first decade of the century, Jinnah had become a political giant before Gandhi returned to India from South Africa.

(Aziz Baig: Jinnah and his Times)

Once he was firmly established in the legal profession, Jinnah formally entered politics in 1905 from from the platform of the Indian National Congress. He went to England in that year along with Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915), as a member of a Congress delegation to plead the cause of India Self-government during the British elections. A year later, he served as Secretary of Dadabhai Noaroji (1825-1917), the then Indian National Congress President, which was considered a great honour for a budding politician. Here, at the Calcutta Congress session (December 1906), he also made his first political speech in support of the resolution on self-government.


Member of Imperial Legislative Council (1910)

Three years later, in January 1910 Jinnah was elected to the newly-constituted Imperial Legislative Council. All through his parliamentary career, which spanned some four decades, he was probably the most powerful voice in the cause of Indian freedom and Indian rights, who was also the first Indian to pilot a private member's Bill through the Council, soon became a leader of a group inside the legistature.

Mr. Montagu (1879-1924), Secretary of State for India, at the close of the First World War, considered Jinnah

Perfect mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecties...


Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity

For about three decades since his entry into politics in 1906, Jinnah passionately believed in and assiduously worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. Gokhale, the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi, had once said of him,

He has the true stuff and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. And, to be sure, he did become the architect of Hindu-Muslim Unity, he was responsible for the Congress-League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact- the only pact ever signed between the two political organisations, the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, representing, as they did, the two major communities in the subcontinent.


The Congress-League scheme embodied in this pact was to become the basis for the Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms, also known as the Act of 1919. In retrospect, the Lucknow Pact represented a milestone in the evolution of Indian politics. For one thing, it conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. Thus, their retention was ensured in the next phase of reforms.

For another, it represented a tacit recognition of the All-India Muslim League as the representative organisation of the Muslims, thus strengthening the trend towards Muslim individuality in Indian politics. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this. Thus, by 1917, Jinnah came to be recognised among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. Not only was he prominent in the Congress and the Imperial Legislative Council, he was also the President of the All-India Muslim League and that of the Bombay Branch of the Home Rule League. More important, because of his key-role in the Congress-League entente at Lucknow, he was hailed as the ambassador, as well as the embodiment, of Hindu-Muslim unity.


Jinnah's Differences with the Congress

Mohammad Ali Jinnah differed with Gandhi on the means of achieving self-rule. The League session reassembled at Lahore under Jinnah's presidency and was attended by a number of Congressmen and leaders of the Khilafat Movement. The Quaid, despite his differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Khilafatists, still enjoyed the trust and admiration of the Muslims of Bombay which can be seen from the fact that he won the Bombay Muslim seat for the Legislative Assembly that he had resigned in protest against the Rowlatt Act.


Delhi Proposals (1927)

However, because of the deep distrust between the two communities as evidenced by the country-wide communal riots, and because the Hindus failed to meet the genuine demands of the Muslims, his efforts came to naught. One such effort was the formulation of the Delhi Muslim Proposals in March, 1927. In order to bridge Hindu-Muslim differences on the constitutional plan, these proposals even waived the Muslims right to separate electorate, the most basic Muslim demand since 1906, which though recognised by the congress in the Lucknow Pact, had again become a source of friction between the two communities.


Quaid's Fourteen Points (1929)

In 1928, Pundit Moti Lal Nehru presented a report which turned down all the Muslims demand. On the reply of Nehru report, Mohammad Ali Jinnah presented his famous fourteen points on March 28, 1929 to the Muslim League Council at their Session in Delhi. Since all the Muslims opposed the Nehru Report, these points were to counter the proposals made in the Nehru Report. This was the certainly the right answer to the Nehru report. The points were to recommend the reforms that would defend the rights of the Muslims of the sub-continent.


Reorganizatoin of Muslim League

Jinnah's disillusionment at the course of politics in the subcontinent prompted him to migrate and settle down in London in the early thirties. While in England, the Quaid had been watching the events that were happening in India and was saddened to see how Muslim interests were being sacrificed by the chaotic situation within the Muslim League. The Muslim League was in the hands of rich, landlords or some middle class intellectuals with limited horizons, while the All India Congress was emerging as the leading party for Indian Independence. He was, however, to return to India in December 1933, at the pleadings of his co-religionists, and assume their leadership.

Jinnah realized that organizing the Muslims of India into one powerful and dynamic organization was badly needed. He performed two important tasks after his return from England, the first was to unite and activate the Muslim League as the sole representative body of the Muslims of India. The second was to continue the struggle for freedom of India on constitutional lines.

Undismayed by this bleak situation, Jinnah devoted himself with singleness of purpose to organizing the Muslims on one platforms. He embarked upon country-wide tours. He pleaded with provincial Muslim leaders to sink their differences and make common cause with the League. He exhorted the Muslim masses to organize themselves and joined the League He gave coherence and direction to Muslim sentiments on the Government of India Act, 1935. He also formulated a viable League manifesto for the election scheduled for early 1937. He was, it seemed, struggling against time to make Muslim India a power to be reckoned with. Despite all the manifold adds stacked against it, the Muslim League won 108 (about 22 percent) seats out of a total of 492 Muslim seats int the various legislatures. Though not very impressive in itself, the League's partial success assumed added significance in view of the fact that the League won the largest number of Muslims and that it was the only All-India party of the Muslims in the country. Thus, the elections represented the first milestone on the long road to putting Muslim India on the map of the subcontinent.

Lacknow Session 1937

Jinnah utilized all his energies on revitalizing the League. With the assistance of the Raja of Mahmudabad, a dedicated adherent of the Muslim League, the Lucknow Session was a grand demonstration of the will of the Muslims of India to stand up to the Congress challenge. It was the Lucknow Session that Jinnah persuaded Sir Sikander Hayat Khan to join the Muslim League along with his Muslim colleagues. That development later became famous as the Jinnah-Sikander Pact.

This Session marked a dramatic change not only in the League's platform and political position, but also in Jinnah's personal commitment and final goal. He changed his attire, shedding the Seville Row suit in which he had arrived for a black Punjabi sherwani long coat. It was for the first time he put on the compact cap, which would soon be known throughout the world as Jinnah Cap. Ti was at that session that the title of Quaid-e-Azam (the great leader) was used for Jinnah and which soon gained such currency and popularity that it almost became a substitute for his name.

The great success was achieved the organization front of the Muslim League. Within three months of the Lucknow session over 170 new branches of the League had been formed, 90 of them in the United Provinces, and it claimed to have enlisted 1,00,000 new members in the province alone.


Day of Deliverance (22nd December, 1939)

The Second World War broke out in 1939 and the British Government was anxious to win the favor and co-operation of the major political parties and leaders in their war effort. The Viceroy made a declaration in October assuring the people of India that after the war, the constitutional problems of India would be re-examined and modifications made in the Act of 1935, according to the opinion of India Parties. The Congress reacted to that drastically, condemned the Viceroy's policy statement and called upon the Congress ministries to resign by October 31, 1939. On the resignation of the Congress ministries, the Muslim League appealed to the Muslims and other minorities to observe December 22, 1939 as the Day of Deliverance.


Demand for Pakistan (23rd March, 1940)

Quaid-e-Azam said in the ever eloquent words,

We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calender, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation.


The formulation of the Muslim demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact on the nature and course of Indian politics. On the one hand, it shattered for ever the Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian, in fact, Hindu Empire exit from India: on the other, it heralded an era of Islamic renaissance and creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participitants. The Hindu reaction was quick, bitter and malicious.


Cripps Scheme (1942)

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India in March 1942, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitution. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank. Jinnah in his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the League, analyzed the Cripps proposals and expressed the disappointment that if these were accepted Muslims could become a minority in their majority provinces as well.


Divide and Quit (1942)

The failure of the Cripps Mission, though unfortunate in many ways, resulted in strenghtening of the Muslim League case of Pakistan.The Congress decided to launch its final assault on British imperialism in the movement that came to be known as the Quit India movement. Gandhi called upon the people to take initiative and to do or die in a last struggle for freedom, throwing of the initial pretences of non-violence. He did not consult the Muslim League or any other party and went ahead with his plans in the hope that the momentum of the mass movement would take violent forms and would involve all parties and sections of the people of India. To the Congress slogan of Quit India, the Quaid's answer was Divide and Quit which meant Muslims do not only want freedom from British but also from Hindu Raj.


Jinnah - Gandhi Talks (1944)

The two leaders also differed with regard to the boundaries of Pakistan and how the issue of whether India should be divided at all, was to be determined. Gandhi was adamant on the question of partition and although he appeared to be conceding the possibility of partition he did everything he could to persuade the Quaid to give up his demand of the establishment of two sovereign states.

The British had been watching with anxiety the progress of the Jinnah-Gandhi talks and were making plans to meet the situation if the Congress and the League arrived at an agreement. The failure of these talks spurred the Viceroy to make renewed efforts to break the political deadlock in India.

Though the Gandhi-Jinnah negotiations failed to achieve the avowed goal of the Hindu-Muslim unity, they brought to Jinnah and the Muslim League two important political gains. Firstly, the leadership of the Congress had now offered to discuss the questions of Pakistan seriously -- before that, the Congress and Mahatama had kept the door to that subject uncompromisingly shut. Secondly, the Congress could no longer justifiably claim that it stood for all the communities in India including the Muslims. Louis Feisher wrote

The wall between Jinnah and Gandhi was the Two Nation Theory.


Simla Conference (1945)

As per the provisions of the Wavell Plan, the Executive Council would be reorganized and Hindus and Muslims would equally represent in the Viceroy's Executive Council and the Council would work as Interim Government till the end of war. Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla in June 1945 to give a practical shape to this plan. The Quaid-e-Azam insisted that the right to appoint five Muslim members in the Executive Council should entirely rest with the Muslim League. The was not acceptable to the Congress as the Congress claimed to represent both the Hindus and Muslims. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one-sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that only the Muslim League can represent Muslims of India.


General Elections (1945-46)

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-46. Muslim League managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims in central legislative and 427 seats out of 495 Muslim seats in the provincial legislative. Election results were enough to prove that Muslim League, under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam, was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region. Quaid-e-Azam said on this occasion

I have no doubt now in the achievement of Pakistan. The Muslims of India told the world what they want. No power of world can topple the opinion of 10 crore Muslims of India.


Delhi Convention (1946)

On 19th April 1946, soon after the elections, Jinnah called a convention at Delhi of all the newly elected League members in the central and the provincial legislatures. In this convention the word States of 1940's Lahore Resolutoin is transformed into the word State and the legislators signed pledges solemnly declaring their firm conviction that the safety, security, salvation and destiny of the Muslims lay only in the achievement of Pakistan.


Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

The most delicate as well as the most tortuous negotiations began with the arrival, in March 1946, of a three-member British Cabinet Mission. The crucial task with which the Cabinet Mission was entrusted was that of devising in consultation with the various political parties, constitution-making machinery, and of setting up a popular interim government. But, because the Congress-League gulf could not be bridged, despite the Mission's prolonged efforts, the Mission had to make its own proposals in May 1946.

The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6, 1946. The Congress accepted the plan on June 25, 1946, though it rejected the interim setup. The Viceroy should now have invited the Muslim League to form Government as it had accepted the interim setup; but he did not do so because he did not want to make Congress angry. So in this situation Cabinet Mission went back to England on June 29 without deciding anything.


Direct Action Day (16th August, 1946)

The Council of the All-India Muslim League met in Bombay and on July 27, 1946 it finally sealed its rejection of the Cabinet Mission Plan, and decided to launch its famous Direct Action for the achievement of Pakistan, which it could not achieve by peaceful means due to the intransigence of Congress on the one hand and the breach of faith with the Muslim by the British Government on the other. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said

Never have we in the whole history of the League done anything except by constitutional methods. But now we are forced into this position. Today we bid good-bye to constitutional methods. Today we have forged a pistol and are in a position to use it. We mean every word of it. We do not believe in equivocation.


Direct Action Day was celebrated on 16th August 1946. There was a strike in all over the country that they. Direct Action Day was observed peacefully throughout India, except in Calcutta, where riots broke out.


Partition Day (1947)

By the close of 1946, the communal riots had flared up to murderous heights, engulfing almost the entire subcontinent. The two people, it seemed, were engaged in a fight to the finish. The time for a peaceful transfer of power was fast running out. Realizing the gravity of the situation. His Majesty's Government sent down to India a new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten. His protracted negotiations with the various political leaders resulted in 3 June (1947) Plan by which the British decided to partition the subcontinent, and hand over power to two successor States on 15 August, 1947. The plan was duly accepted by the three Indian Parties to the dispute the Congress, the League and the Akali dal (representing the Sikhs). However Pakistan became constitionally independent at midnight between 14th and 15th August 1947.


Leader of a Free Nation

In recognition of his singular contribution, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was nominated by the Muslim League as the Governor-General of Pakistan, while the Congress appointed Mountbatten as India's first Governor-General. Pakistan, it has been truly said, was born in virtual chaos.

The problems which the Quaid-e-Azam had to face as Governor General of Pakistan were not only due to the happenings in East Punjab, and to provide shelter for the millions of refugees. What immensely increased the difficulties of the new state was the fact that it had yet to organize itself.


Death of the Great Leader

It was due to immense hard word for the Muslims that his health failed. The great leader breathed his last on 11th September 1948 and was buried in Karachi. His demise was mourned not only by Pakistan but by the whole world.

It was, however, given to Surat Chandra Bose, leader of the Forward Bloc wing of the Indian National Congress, said on his death in 1948.

Mr. Jinnah was great as a lawyer, once great as a Congressman, great as a leader of Muslims, great as a world politician and diplomat, and greatest of all as a man of action, By Mr. Jinnah's passing away, the world has lost one of the greatest statemen and Pakistan its life-giver, philosopher and guide.


Such was Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the man and his mission, such the range of his accomplishments and achievements

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