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Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

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Default Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan


Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Friendsmania.net

* Foreign Policy

* Pakistan's Relations with the United States.

* Relations of Pakistan with India.

* Pakistan and Kashmir Issue.


__________________________________


Q.1. Define Foreign Policy and what are the principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy?

* 1 Introduction
* 2 Definition of Foreign Policy
* 3 Pakistan's Foreign Policy in Light of Quaid-e-Azam's Words
* 4 Basic Goals of Pakistan's Foreign Policy
* 5 Guiding Principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy
* 6 Conclusion

Introduction

No country today can think of a life independent of other nations. Every country has to develop relations with other countries so as to meet its requirements in economical, industrial and technological fields. It is thus necessary for every country to formulate a sound foreign policy. Pakistan is an important third world country, in its developmental stage. It also has formulated her foreign policy keeping in mind its geography, politics and economics.


Definition of Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy can be defined as

Relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states. It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country wants to establish relations with another country.


Pakistan's Foreign Policy in Light of Quaid-e-Azam's Words

The father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam defined Foreign Policy towards other countries of the world in 1948, as follows

Our Foreign Policy is one of friendliness and good-will towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the policy of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.


Basic Goals of Pakistan's Foreign Policy

1. Maintenance of territorial integrity.

2. Maintenance of its political independence.

3. Acceleration of social and economic development.

4. Strengthening its place on the globe.

5. Keeping cordial and friendly relations with all countries.


Guiding Principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy

Following are the basic principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy:


1. Protection of Freedom and Sovereignity

Pakistan came into being after great sacrifices of million of Muslims. Like any other country, she also considers with deep regard the need for preservation of its independence and does not allow any country to harm its freedom. Therefore, the principle of protection of independence and sovereignity is the corner stone of Pakistan's Foreign Policy.


2. Cordial Relations with Muslim Countries

Pakistan always tries to establish cordial and friendly relations with Muslim countries. It has always moved its concern against Israel, India and U.S.S.R capturing Palestine, Kashmir and Afghanistan respectively. She has shouldered high responsibilities and used her influence for safeguarding the rights of the Muslims. Pakistan is also an active member of the Islamic Conference.


3. Non-Interference in Internal Affairs of Other Countries

Pakistan has sought to establish normal and friendly relations with all countries especially in neighbouring countries, on the basis of universally acknowledge the principle of national sovereignity, non use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states.


4. Implementation of U.N Charter

Pakistan's policy is to act upon UN charter and to support all moves by the UN to implement it. Pakistan has been the member of UN since the year of its birth.


5. Promotion of World Peace

Pakistan's policy is to promote peace among nations. It has no aggressive designs against any country. Neither does it support any such action. Pakistan has always held that the international disputes should be settled through negotiations rather than non-battlefield.


6. Non-Alignment

Pakistan follows the policy of Non-Alignment i.e. to keep away from alignment with any big power bloc, and avoids taking sides in the cold war. It has also given up its association with SEATO and CENTO and was included in NAM in 1979.


7. Support for Self-Determination and Condemnation of Racial Discrimination

Pakistan is a stomach supporter of the right of self-determination and has been in the fore front of efforts to eliminate colonialism and racism. It has advocated the right of self-determination of Kashmir.


8. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament

Pakistan is deeply conscious of the fact that international peace and security cannot be achieved and sustained in the world with arms. Disarmament is the imperative condition for truly durable peace in the world. Pakistan has a vital stake in promotion of disarmament both in the nuclear and conventional fields. It is included in the principles of its foreign policy that a collective endeavour by countries at the regional level to promote disarmament and enhance security at the lowest possible level of armaments is an indispensable result to their advocacy of global disarmament.


9. Member of International Organization

Pakistan had become the member of the British Commonwealth with the time of its establishment. In addition it is the member of United Nations (U.N), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC), Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and D-Eight. Being a member of International Organizations the objectives of Pakistan are to struggle for world peace, to unify the Muslim countries and to promote regional co-operation.


Conclusion

The guiding principles of Pakistan's Foreign Policy are rooted in the country's Islamic ideology, its rich cultural heritage and historical experience. As an Islamic and non-aligned country, Pakistan supports Islamic causes and firmly upholds the above mentioned principles, which hold out the promise of a just and equitable world order in which nations can live in peace and security.

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Default Re: Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Q.2. Examine critically the foreign policy of Pakistan with special reference to United States.
Pakistan's Relation with the United States

Pakistan's relationship with the West, particularly the United States, was of major importance. Geographically the USA is not a neighbour of Pakistan, but interests of politician, Bureaucracy and Generals have brought both the countries close together. The United States and Pakistan established diplomatic relations in 1947.

Liaquat Ali Khan's Visit 1950
In 1949, the US Secretary of State extended invitation to the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan for a visit to the United States. The Prime Minister visited USA at the end of 1950. During his visit he tried to identify Pakistan as more near to the West and Islam more near to Christianity than to Communism and begged for economic and military aid.

SEATO and CENTO 1954-55
Pakistan's relations with the United States developed against the backdrop of the Cold War. Pakistan's strategic geographic position made it a valuable partner in Western alliance systems to contain the spread of communism. In 1954 Pakistan signed a Mutual Defence Agreement with the United States and subsequently became a member of SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization) and CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). The U.S. agreement to provide economic and military assistance to Pakistan and the latter's partnership in the Baghdad Pact CENTO and SEATO strengthened relations between the two nations.

Pakistan as Washington's Closest Ally
Pakistan also used as a base for United States military reconnaissance flights over Soviet territory. During the cold War years, Pakistan was considered one of Washington's closest allies in Asia. Pakistan, in return, received large amounts of economic and military assistance.

1965 and 1971 Wars and United States
The United States suspended military assistance to both the countries involved in the conflict of 1965. However, the U.S. suspension of military assistance during the 1965 Indo-Pakistan was generated a widespread feeling in Pakistan that the United States was not a reliable ally. The United States embargo on arms shipments to Pakistan remained in place during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and was not lifted until 1975. Gradually, relations improved and arms sales were renewed in 1975. United States-Pakistani relations preceding the 1971 was were characterized by poor communication and much confusion.

Withdraw from SEATO and CENTO
Following the lost of East Wing, Pakistan withdrew from SEATO. Pakistan's military links with the West continued to decline throughout Bhutto's tenure in power and into the first years of the Zia regime. CENTO was disbanded following the fall of the Shah of Iran in March 1979, and Pakistan then joined the Nonaligned Movement. Zia also continued Bhutto's policy of developing Pakistan's nuclear capability.

Cease of Economic Assistance
Developing Pakistan's nuclear capability policy had originated as a defensive measure in reaction to India's explosion of a nuclear device in 1974. In April 1979, President Jimmy Carter cut off economic assistance to Pakistan, except for food assistance, as required under the Symington Amendment to the Foreign Assistance act of 1961. This amendment called for ceasing economic assistance to those countries that had imported uranium-enrichment technology. Relations between the United States and Pakistan were further strained in November 1979 when protesters sacked the United States embassy i Islamabad, resulting in the death of four persons. The violence had been sparked by a false report that the United States was involved in a fire at the Grand Masjid in Macca.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and American's Changed Policy
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 revived the close relationship between Pakistan and the United States. Initially, however the President Carter lifted the ban on aid to Pakistan and in January 1980, offered a package of US$ 400 million economic and military aid to Pakistan which was rejected by General Zia-ul-Haq, who termed it "peanuts". Under President Ronald Reagan, the United States agreed in 1981 to provide US$ 3.2 billion to Pakistan aimed at helping Pakistan deal with the heightened threat to security in the region and its economic development needs. However, although the Symington Amendment was waived, the amount was subject to the annual appropriation process. A second economic and military assistance program was announced in April 1986, this time for over US$ 4.0 billion, with 57 percent for economic assistance. With U.S, assistance in the largest covert operation in history - Pakistan armed and supplied anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan, eventually defeating the Soviets, who withdrew in 1988.
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Pressler Amendment 1985
On October 01, 1990 however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device". For several years, the United States president, with Pakistan's assurances that its nuclear program was for peaceful uses, was able to make this certification. However, with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan and the end of the Cold War, the United States took a harder position on the nuclear weapons issue and President George Bush refused to make the certification required under the Pressler Amendment, and assistance to Pakistan was subsequently terminated. Further, the supply of F-16 jet fighters was also stopped for which Pakistan had already paid $650 million to the US.

Sanctions on alleged transfer of M-11 missiles
Pakistan's retention of the nuclear option became a defining issue in its relations with the United States. USA another action in regard of the nuclear issue occurred in September 1993 when the US imposed sanctions against China and Pakistan on alleged transfer of M-11 missiles to Pakistan labeling it a violation of the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime).

Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's Visit to US 1995
In the background of the number of unresolved issues including nuclear non-proliferation, delivery of F-16s, alleged supply of M-11 missiles by China, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto paid an official visit to Washington in April 1995. The joint statement failed to mention any solution to these issues. Pakistan and US signed in Washington Memoranda of Unterstanding providing for $6 million of investment by American companies in Pakistan.

Brown Amendment 1995
According to US officials the Pressler Amendment was a hurdle in the normalization of Pak-US relations. As a result, on 21st September 1995, the US Senate under Clinton Administration passed the Brown Amendment to lessen its negative impact. The amendment opened the way for 28 undelivered F-16s to be sold to a third country and the money refunded to Pakistan, release of $368 million worth defense equipment, restoration of corporation in such areas as narcotics control, international terrorism, peace keeping and the availability of US insurance cover for investment made in Pakistan.

Nuclear Weapon Tests 1998
India's decision to conduct nuclear tests in May 1998 and Pakistan's matching response set back U.S. relations in the region. President Clinton's visit to Pakistan scheduled for the first quarter of 1998 was postponed and under the Glenn Amendment, sanctions restricted the provisions of credits, military sales, economic assistance and loans to the government. An intensive dialogue on nuclear nonproliferation and security issues was initiated with discussion focusing on CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) signature and ratification. Pakistan declared that it would sign the treaty only when India did so first.

Nawaz Sharif's Meeting with President Clinton 1998
The relations improved a little after the former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's meeting with President Clinton in Washington in December 1998. As a consequence, the economic sanctions imposed by the US after the Nuclear Test were eased. A notable achievement was a resolution of the F-16s issue and accordingly US released $436.7 million to Pakistan as a claim in connection with the F-16 aircrafts. But the October 1999 overthrow of the democratically elected Sharif government triggered an additional layer of sanctions with include restrictions on foreign military financing and economic assistance. U.S. Government assistance to Pakistan was limited mainly to refugee and counter-narcotics assistance.

September 11 attacks and Pakistan-US relationship
History changed its course on September 11, 2001 when deadly terrorists attacks destroyed World Trade Centre at New York and severally damaged the Pentagon in Washington. More than 5,000 people were killed in this attack. The 9/11 incidence gave a new direction to the global politics.
The Pakistan-US relationship changed significantly when Pakistan moved decisively to ally itself with the United States in its war against Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. It gave the U.S. a number of military airports and bases for its attack on Afghanistan. It has arrested over five hundred Al-Qaeda members and handed them over to the United States. In response the United States stepped up its economic assistance to Pakistan providing debt relief.

President Musharraf's Visit to US 2003
President Musharraf visited United States in June 2003 and both Presidents negotiated on 24th June 2003 at Camp David. Afterwards President Bush announced to provide Pakistan $3 billion economic and military aid and plainly refused about the delivery of F-16s.
The Bush Administration expressed its desire that "an enhanced and enduring relationship" with Pakistan would continue to thrive in the years ahead. Continuing interest of President Bush and personal diplomacy of Secretary Powell to defuse border tension between Pakistan and India also reflected the US desire for enhanced constructive engagement in the region.

Pakistan as major Non-NATO ally
In March, 2004 the United States designated Pakistan as a "major Non-NATO ally". This move will significantly enhance military cooperation between the two countries and enable Pakistan to purchase modern military equipment, satellite technology, depleted uranium ammunition and enhance cooperation in defense sector, research and development with US.

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Default Re: Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Q.3. Examine the relations of Pakistan with India
Pakistan's Relation with India

Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. The animosity has its roots in religion and history, and is epitomized by the long-running conflict over the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Historical Background
The Indian Sub Continent was partitioned into Hindu-dominated India and the newly created Muslim state of Pakistan after India's independence from Great Britain in 1947. Severe rioting and population movement ensued and an estimated half a million people were killed in communal violence. About a million people were left homeless. Since partition, the territory of Jammu and Kashmir has remained in dispute with Pakistan and India both holding sectors.

First Indo-Pakistan War 1947-49
At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharaja, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the Maharaja hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects, aided by tribesmen from Pakistan, revolted in favor of joining Pakistan.
The first Indo-Pakistan war started after armed tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province invaded Kashmir in October 1947. Besieged both by a revolt n his state and by the invasion, the Maharaja requested armed assistance from the Government of India. In return he acceded to India, handling over powers of defense, communication and foreign affairs. Both India and Pakistan agreed that the accession would be confirmed by a referendum once hostilities had ceased. In May 1948, the regular Pakistani army was called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. Fighting continued throughout the year between Pakistani irregular troops and the Indian army. The war ended on 1st January 1949 when a ceasefire was arranged by the United Nations which recommended that both India and Pakistan should adhere to their commitment to hold a referendum in the state. A ceasefire line was established where the two sides stopped fighting and a UN peacekeeping force established. The referendum, however has never been held.

The 1965 War
In April 1965, a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western Indo-Pakistan border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weaks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences.

The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971.

Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984
India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949.
Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade.

Kashmir Insurgency 1990
Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock.

Diplomatic Push 1996-97
In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities.
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Nuclear Rivalry 1998
The arms race between the rivals escalated dramatically in the 1990s. In May 1998, India conducted underground nuclear tests in the western desert state of Rajasthan near the border with Pakistan. In response, Pakistan conducted six tests in Balochistan. In the same year, Pakistan test its longest range missile, the 1,500 km (932 mile) Ghauri missile, named after the 12th Century Muslim warrior who conquered part of India. Both sides were heavily criticized by the international community for the tests as fears of a nuclear confrontation grew.
The United States ordered sanctions against both countries, freezing more than $20bn of aid, loans and trade. Japan ordered a block on about $1bn of aid loans. Several European countries followed suit, and the G-8 governments imposed a ban on non-humanitarian loans to India and Pakistan. The UN Security Council condemned India and Pakistan for carrying out nuclear tests and urged the two nations to stop all nuclear weapons programmes.

Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee Visit to Pakistan 1999
The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. They signed the Lahore accord pledging again to "intensify their efforts to resolve all issues, including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir."

Kargil Conflict 1999
Unfortunately, in May 1999 India launched air strikes against Pakistani backed forces that had infiltrated into the mountains in Indian-administrated Kashmir, north of Kargil. Pakistan responded by occupying positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil threatening the ability of India to supply its forces on Siachen Glacier. By early summer, serious fighting flared in the Kargil sector. The infiltrators withdrew following a meeting between Prime Minister Sharif and President Bill Clinton in July. Relations between India nad Pakistan have since been particularly strained, especially since the October 12, 1999 coup in Islamabad.

The Brink of War 2001
Tension along the ceasefire lined continued. The worst fighting for more than a year broke out in October as India, which continued to condemn Pakistan for cross-border terrorism, started shelling Pakistani military positions. October saw a devastating attack on the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar in which 38 people were killed. After the attack, the Chief Minister of Indian-administrated Kashmir, Farooque Abdullah called on Indian Government to launch a war against militant training camps across the border in Pakistan.
On 13th December, an armed attack on the Indian Parliament in Delhi left 14 people dead. India again blamed Pakistani-backed Kashmiri militants. The attack led to a dramatic build-up of troops along the Indo-Pakistan border, military exchanges and raised fears of a wider conflict. Rail and bus services between the two countries were also blocked.

Relaxation of Tension 2003
A relaxation of tension began in 2003, when then Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee called for a dialogue. Rail and bus services between the two countries resumed, and the two countries agreed to a ceasefire in Kashmir.

Summit Talks 2004
Twelfth SAARC Summit was held in Islamabad in January 2004. On this occasion President Parvez Musharraf met Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee on 5th January 2004. In this summit talk India and Pakistan resumed comprehensive discussions with an agenda the included the Kashmir problem, confidence-building measures, and ways to provide security against terrorism.

No War Pact 2004
These comprehensive consultations have steadily built up trust, resulting in agreements to continue the suspension of nuclear tests, to give prior notification of missile tests, and to seek a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir problem. On June 20, 2004, both countries signed "No War Pact" and agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.

Musharraf's Unofficial Visit to India 2005
In April 2005 President Parvez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed on various new confidence-building measures between the two nations. Their talks, held during Mr. Musharraf's unofficial visit to India on April 17, produced agreement, for example, on the passage of trucks for commercial purposes over Kashmir's Line of Control, or ceasefire line. This is expected to greatly help ease tensions between the countries.
The improvement of relations between India and Pakistan still involves uncertain factors such as the activities of Islamic extremists, but efforts should be stepped up so that the latest summit can serve as a favorable tail wind for accelerating the thaw between the two nations.

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Default Re: Chapter 10 - The Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Q.4. Write a detailed note on Pakistan and Kashmir Issue
Introduction

Kashmir, the last of the defiant states, was the reverse of Hyderabad. It had a Hindu Ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, but his subjects were mostly Muslims, accounting to 77 percent of the total population. The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a decision to join either of the states before August 15, 1947. The Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. Pakistan consented but India refused.

War of Kashmir 1947
The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. In August 1947, they held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness. The Maharaja panicked. He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire and within a matter of seconds, several hundred Muslims were killed. Rising up against this brutal action, a local barrister called Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Maharaja. By October 1947, the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. The Pathan tribesmen from the Noth West Frontier Province, wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers, invaded the valley. On reaching the valley of Kashmir, they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar, the capital.

Maharaja's Coalition with India
The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. On October 26, 1947, the Maharaja acceded to India. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of India. On October 26, 1947, India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar and launched a full-scale attack on the tribesmen. Pakistan was stunned. Despite her scant military resources, Pakistan was prepared to send in her troops but the British General Gracey, Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was against it. Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir.

Kashmir Dispute and United Nations
In January 1948, India took the dispute to the Security Council. There it accused Pakistan of aggression and demanded that Pakistan withdraw her tribesmen. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. The government requested the Security Council to arrange a cease-fire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir.

Indo-Pakistan War 1948 and United Nation's Involvement
While the Kashmir issue was still on the table, the Indian troops launched a full-scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border. Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a full-scale war with India ensued. She took control of the Azad Kashmir Army. But the Security Council on August 13, 1948 called for an immediate ceasefire the withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under United Nation's supervision. Both the Indian and Paksitani government accepted the resolution.
In January 1949, the resolution began to be implemented. In July 1949, the ceasefire line was demarcated. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu, Poonch, some areas of Western Kashmir, Gilgit and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the North. India kept the valley of Kashmir, Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tiber border. The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved.
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The 1965 War
In April 1965, a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western Indo-Pakistan border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weaks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences.

The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Following the 1971 Indo-Pakistan conflict, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India in July 1972. They agreed to a line of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means.

Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984
India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949.
Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade.

Kashmir Insurgency 1990
Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock.

Diplomatic Push 1996-97
In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities.

Effects of 9/11 on Kashmir
If the world and the United States changed after September 11, the center of that change is the region where Pakistan is located. When it came to begin the war against terrorism Pakistan did not hesitate to do whatever it takes to fight against terrorism. United States of America appreciated the efforts of Pakistan which did not please India. So, India blamed Pakistan-based groups for the December 13, 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament. In reply, General Parvez Musharraf's speech of January 12, 2002 which even India's hawkish Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani termed four days later as "path-breaking", India was caught on the back foot.

National Kashmir Committee
It is in this context that Pakistan launched a new political initiative on Kashmir to reaffirm its long standing policy of supporting the right of self-determination for the people of kashmir that is enshrined in United Nations resolutions, initially accepted even by India. Musharraf announced the formation of a National Kashmir Committee headed by a veteran Kashmiri politician, and its charter made clear the purposes behind the initiative. The challenge before the government is to promote confidence among the people in Pakistan and Kashmir regarding Pakistan's efforts to project the Kashmir cause as a popular and indigenous struggle internationally.
Having addressed international concerns regarding terrorism and extremism in Musharraf's January 12 speech, the United States is now more receptive to Pakistan's plea and is anxious to see a dialogue on all the issues of Kashmir.

Peace in South Asia and the Kashmir Dispute
Pakistan believes that the establishment of durable peace in South Asia hinges on the resolution of the Kashmir Dispute in light of the security Council resolutions and the wishes of the Kashmiri people. On March 17, 2004 Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said the Kashmir dispute remains the core issue between India and Pakistan. The two South Asian nations have fought three wars, two of which were over the disputed kashmir region. In January this year, the two leaderships made a decision to open the dialogue process in a bid to resolve all disputes between the two sides.

The Dialogue Process
Pakistan always showed seriousness and sincerity towards resolution of the core issue of Kashmir by adopting several Confidence Building Measures (CBMs). World community. time and again has advised India to decrease the number of its force in Occupied Kashmir and release illegally detained Kashmiri Leadership. India never hesitated from leveling baseless allegations against Pakistan of infiltration and also did not stop massive human rights violations in Kashmir. The need is to initiate vigorous efforts from both sides in resolving the Kashmir issue. The basic important dispute between the two countries is Kashmir issue and with its resolution all the other outstanding issues would be settled very easity. Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said that Kashmir dispute should be resolved according to the United Nations resolution and with active participation of the Kashmiris.

Year 2005 - Road to Peace
The Prime Minister said that there wre many difficulties on road to peace but emphasized the need to take measures to promote mutual trust and find new avenues for a peaceful resolution of the lingering Kashmir dispute. The first formal visit of a faction of the separatist All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) and the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) and subsequently, though unsanctioned by Indian authorities to Pakistan between June 2-16, 2005 was thus projected as a major event and development in the process of solving the "Kashmir Issue". Indeed the visit strongly reiterated the fact that the APHC continues to be a faithful Pakistani proxy. After his meeting with the President Musharraf, Mirwaiz Umer Farooq declared that We want Kashmir to be divided on geographical grounds. We don't wand Kashmir to lose its identity.... we support his [President Musharraf] approach. During their meeting with President Musharraf, the APHC leaders once again were assured full political, diplomatic and moral support.
This tour has been helpful in understanding the viewpoint of the Kashmiri leaders. Their quest for a free hand to decide their future is valid. They have been living under brutal Indian occupation since 1948. Despite promised justice by the UN 57 years ago, they have been denied their right of self-determination. It was in fact the denial of justice and unabated Indian State-terrorism perpetrated against Kashmir.
The recent visit of the APHC leaders was a significant development, which can be termed as a milestone in the process of resolving the core dispute of Kashmir between Pakistan and India peacefully. We wish both the governments to show courage, boldness and flexibility in settling the issue.

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